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Role of free Radicals

Renal Diseases

Many pathological conditions have become associated with chronic renal failure, including accelerated aging, cataract formation, atheroscelerosis and platelet dysfunction. Renal patients undergo regular dialysis, which has been shown to remove many small antioxidant molecules from the blood. This results in reduced protection against free radical attack, enabling increased peroxidation of cellular components. High levels of malondialdehyde have been discovered in the red blood cells of dialysis patients, indicating increased lipid peroxidation. Some researchers have described a reduction in alpha-tocopherol levels in the red blood cells of patients undergoing dialysis. In response to excessive release of ROS in renal failure increase rapidly level of SOD in red blood cells. Normal activity of SOD is copper- and zinc-dependent. Therefore, deficiencies in these elements after dialysis reduced activity of SOD in red blood cells. Next parallel to decrease in SOD activity was observed the significantly lower level of glutathione peroxidase in renal dialysis patients in comparison with normal subjects, due to the deficiency in trace elements. Glutathione peroxidase plays an essential role in the prevention of lipid peroxidation. This is thought to be due to rapid consumption of the antioxidant component with elevated levels of ROS and increased lipid peroxidation.

References
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  2. Epstein M. Aldosterone and the hypertensive kidney: its emerging role as a mediator of progressive renal dysfunction: a paradigm shift. Journal of Hypertension. 19(5):829-42, 2001.

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  4. Seth P. Kumari R. Madhavan S. Singh AK. Mani H. Banaudha KK. Sharma SC. Kulshreshtha DK. Maheshwari RK. Prevention of renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in rats by picroliv. Biochemical Pharmacology. 59(10):1315-22, 2000.

  5. Canaud B. Cristol J. Morena M. Leray-Moragues H. Bosc J. Vaussenat F. Imbalance of oxidants and antioxidants in haemodialysis patients. Blood Purification. 17(2-3):99-106, 1999.

  6. Yokozawa T. Chung HY. Kim DW. Goto H. Involvement of superoxide and/or nitric oxide in renal tissue injury. Experimental & Toxicologic Pathology. 51(6):517-21, 1999.

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  8. Kashihara N. Sugiyama H. Makino H. Mechanisms for induction of apoptosis and glomerular disease. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 14 Suppl 1:52-4, 1999.

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